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  • Accessibility

    A characteristic of technology that enables people with disabilities to use it. For example, accessible Websites can be navigated by people with visual, hearing, motor, or cognitive impairments. Accessible design also benefits people with older or slower software and hardware.

  • Act

    ‘Act’ forms the fourth final stage of the PDCA natural improvement cycle. Using information obtained from the previous stages to improve processes or performance in the future.

  • Actions (dynamics) B2

    Actions that have been identified to implement plans, objectives, corrective and preventive changes. Allows assignment of responsibilities (including delegation of parts), prioritisation, and reporting.

  • ADL (Advanced Distributed Learning)

    Initiative by the U.S. Department of Defense to achieve interoperability across computer and Internet-based learning courseware through the development of a common technical framework, which contains content in the form of reusable learning objects. See also SCORM and the ADL Website.

  • ADSL

    Short for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, a technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines. ADSL supports data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data (known as the upstream rate).

  • ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

    A type of DSL that uses the majority of the bandwidth to transmit information to the user and a small part of the bandwidth to receive information from the user.

  • AICC (Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee)

    An international association of technology-based training professionals that develops training guidelines for the aviation industry. AICC has and is developing standards for interoperability of computer-based and computer-managed training products across multiple industries.

  • AJAX

    Asynchronous JavaScript and XML is a term describing a web development technique for creating interactive web applications using a combination of:

    • HTML (or XHTML) and Cascading Style Sheets for presenting information
    • Document Object Model, JavaScript to dynamically display and interact with the information presented
    • XML, XSLT and the XMLHttpRequest object to interchange and manipulate data asynchronously with the web server (although AJAX applications can use other technologies)


  • Amplitude

    The amount of variety in a signal. Commonly thought of as the height of a wave.

  • Analog

    A signal that is received in the same form in which it is transmitted, although the amplitude and frequency may vary.

  • AoD (Audio On Demand)

    See CoD.

  • Apache

    Apache is an open-source (source code is freely available and can be shared) HTTP Web server software. It is currently the most popular web server on the Net. It is usually run on Unix operating system versions like Linux or BSD, but it can also be run on Windows. It is a full-featured server with many powerful add-ons freely available.

  • API (Application Program Interface)

    The set of tools used by a programmer to create a computer program.

  • Applet

    A small application. See also Java applet.

  • Application

    Computer software; also called a program. There are many types of software that fit into the category of application. Application software is distinct from other forms of software, such as operating system and utility software.

  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interexchange)

    A computer code in which characters such as letters and symbols are converted into numbers that the computer can understand.

  • ASP (Active Server Page)

    An Active Server Page is a web page that includes program code that is processed on a Microsoft web server before the page is sent to the user. The code is typically used to access data from a database and that data is then built into the returned web page „on the fly“.
    ASP was developed by Microsoft and is a feature of Microsoft’s web server software, but the dynamically generated pages can be viewed by almost any browser.

  • ASP (Application Service Provider)

    A third-party organization that supplies software applications and/or software-related services over the Internet. ASPs allow companies to save money, time, and resources by outsourcing some or all of their information technology needs.

  • Assessment

    The process used to systematically evaluate a learner s skill or knowledge level.

  • Assessment item

    A question or measurable activity used to determine whether the learner has mastered a learning objective.

  • Asset
    1. Intellectual property. See knowledge asset.
    2. Hardware and software owned by an organization.


  • Asynchronous learning

    Learning in which interaction between instructors and students occurs intermittently with a time delay. Examples are self-paced courses taken via the Internet or CD-ROM, Q&A mentoring, online discussion groups, and email.

  • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

    A network technology for high-speed transfer of data. Packets of information are relayed in fixed sizes, enabling smooth transmission. ATM supports real-time voice and video as well as data and can reach speeds of up to 10 Gbps.

  • Audio bridge

    A device used in audioconferencing that connects multiple telephone lines.

  • Audioconferencing

    Voice-only connection of more than two sites using standard telephone lines.

  • Audiographics

    Computer-based technology that enables simultaneous transmission of voice, data, and graphic images across local telephone lines for instructor-learner interaction.

  • Authoring tool

    A software application or program used by trainers and instructional designers to create e-learning courseware. Types of authoring tools include instructionally focused authoring tools, Web authoring and programming tools, template-focused authoring tools, knowledge capture systems, and text and file creation tools.

  • Avatar

    In online environments, a virtual digital image representing a person.

  • Backbone

    A primary communication path connecting multiple users.

  • Band

    A range of frequencies between defined upper and lower limits.

  • Bandwidth

    The information carrying capacity of a communication channel.

  • Baud

    A measure of data transmission speed. At low speeds, baud is equal to the bits transmitted per second (bps). At higher speeds, one baud can represent more than one bit.

  • BBS (Bulletin Board System)

    An online community run on a host computer that users can dial or log into in order to post messages on public discussion boards, send and receive email, chat with other users, and upload and download files. BBSs are text-based and often related to the specific hobbies or interests of their creators.

  • Beneficiary

    Beneficiary, means a legal entity, an international organisation or the Joint Research Centre (JRC), which has concluded this grant agreement with the Community.

  • Binary code

    A coding system made up of numbers expressed in base-2 notation, using only the digits 0 and 1.

  • Bit

    The most basic unit of information on a computer. In accordance with binary code, each bit is designated as either a 1 or a 0; all other information stored on the computer is composed of combinations of bits.

  • Blended learning

    Learning events that combine aspects of online and face-to-face instruction.

  • Blog (Weblog)

    An extension of the personal Website consisting of regular journal-like entries posted on a Webpage for public viewing. Blogs usually contain links to other Websites along with the thoughts, comments, and personality of the blog s creator.

  • Bluetooth

    A wireless networking technology using radio waves that enables users to send data and voice signals between electronic devices over short distances.

  • Bookmark

    A Webpage link stored in a browser for quick and easy retrieval.

  • Bps (Bits Per Second)

    A measurement of data transmission speed in a communications system; the number of bits transmitted or received each second.

  • Bps (Bits Per Second)

    A measurement of data transmission speed in a communications system; the number of bits transmitted or received each second.

  • Bridge

    A device linking two or more sections of a network.

  • Broadband
    1. In layperson s terms, high speed transmission of data. In this use, the specific speed that defines broadband is subjective; the word often implies any speed above what is commonly used at the time.
    2. In technical terms, transmission over a network in which more than one signal is carried at a time. Broadband technology can transmit data, audio, and video all at once over long distances.
  • Broadcast

    (noun): Television or radio signals designed to reach a mass audience. (Some Websites offer original or redistributed broadcasts)

    (verb): 1) To transmit television or radio signals. 2) To email or fax a message to multiple recipients simultaneously; to transmit information simultaneously to everyone on a network.

  • Browser

    A software application that displays World Wide Web pages originally written in the text-based HTML language in a user-friendly graphical format.

  • Business requirements

    The conditions an e-learning solution should meet to align with the needs of such stakeholders as the content developer, subject matter expert, learner, manager, and training administrator.

  • Byte

    A combination of 8 bits.

  • C-learning

    See instructor-led training.

  • Cable modem

    A modem that uses cable television s coaxial cables to transmit data at faster speeds than modems using telephone lines.

  • CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction)

    The use of a computer as a medium of instruction for tutorial, drill and practice, simulation, or games. CAI is used for both initial and remedial training, and typically does not require that a computer be connected to a network or provide links to learning resources outside of the course. See also CBT.

  • Case study

    A scenario used to illustrate the application of a learning concept. May be either factual or hypothetical.

  • CBL (Computer-Based Learning)

    See CBT.

  • CBT (computer-based training)

    An umbrella term for the use of computers in both instruction and management of the teaching and learning process. CAI (computer-assisted instruction) and CMI (computer-managed instruction) are included under the heading of CBT. Some people use the terms CBT and CAI interchangeably.

  • CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory or compact disc read-only media)

    A computer storage medium similar to the audio CD that can hold more than 600 megabytes of read-only digital information.

  • Certification
    1. The awarding of a credential acknowledging that an individual has demonstrated proof of a minimum level of knowledge or competence, as defined by a professional standards organization. Professional certification can be used as a screening tool and verification of an individual s skills and knowledge.
    2. Program that evaluates products or tools according to predetermined criteria, such as ASTD s E-Learning Courseware Certification (eCC).

  • Change of control

    Any change in the control exercised over a beneficiary. Such control may result in particular from:

    • direct or indirect holding of a majority of the share capital of the beneficiary or a majority of the voting rights of the latter’s shareholders or associates
    • direct or indirect holding in fact or in law of decision-making powers in the beneficiary.

  • Chat

    This rather generic term has come to describe one of the more popular activities on the Internet. Using special software, Internet users can enter chat areas or „virtual spaces,“ where they can communicate in real time.

    While most chat software only lets users talk by typing, more advanced products assign avatars, 2D or 3D characters, to each participant. These avatars may even have expressions selected by the chatters. The most advanced products not only use avatars, but also let users with sound cards speak to each other.

  • Chat room

    A virtual meeting space on the Internet, an intranet, or other network, used for real-time text discussions. Unlike one-to-one instant messenger applications, chat rooms enable conversations among multiple people at once.

  • Check

    ‘Check’ forms the third stage of the PDCA natural improvement cycle. Monitoring and (where appropriate) measuring processes and their outcomes against the planned policies, objectives and requirements.

  • Chunk

    (noun): A discrete portion of content, often consisting of several learning objects grouped together. (verb) To separate content into discrete portions or aggregate smaller content elements into customized configurations.

  • Circulated letters

    Stating company policies on a certain issue to all suppliers, contractors and/or buying agents.

  • Classroom training

    See instructor-led training.

  • Client

    The customer side of a client/server setup. To confuse matters, when you log on to a server, the word client can refer to you, to your computer, or to the software running on your computer. For example, to download something from an ftp site, you use ftp client software.

  • Client-server

    Two computer systems linked by a network or modem connection where the client computer uses resources by sending requests to the server computer.

  • CLO (Chief Learning Officer)

    The executive with primary responsibility for strategic human capital development. The CLO ensures that all learning investments focus on accomplishing the organization s mission, strategy, and goals;

    • provides a single point of accountability for those investments;
    • develops the corporate learning strategy;
    • creates a culture of continuous learning;
    • fosters communities of practice;
    • integrates training functions;
    • drives cultural transformation;
    • measures the impact on organizational performance.

    The CLO increasingly reports to either the CEO or senior vice president of HR. He or she is to learning what the CFO and CIO are to finance and information technology.

  • CMI (computer-managed instruction)

    The use of computer technology to oversee the learning process, including testing and record keeping.

  • CMS (content management system)

    A centralized software application or set of applications that facilitates and streamlines the process of designing, testing, approving, and posting e-learning content, usually on Webpages.

  • CMYK

    CMYK identifies the four colors used in traditional printing presses, and stands for, respectively, cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

  • Coaching

    A process in which a more experienced person, the coach, provides a worker or workers with constructive advice and feedback with the goal of improving performance.

  • CoD (Content on demand)

    Delivery of an offering, packaged in a media format, anywhere, anytime via a network. Variants include audio on demand (AoD) and video on demand (VoD).

  • Code of conduct

    A set of conventional principles and expectations that are considered binding on any person who is a member of a particular group.

  • Codec (coder/decoder)

    Device used to convert analog signals to digital signals for transmission, and to reconvert signals upon reception at the remote site, while allowing for the signal to be compressed for less expensive transmission.

  • Collaboration technology

    Software, platforms, or services that enable people at different locations to communicate and work with each other in a secure, self-contained environment. May include capabilities for document management, application sharing, presentation development and delivery, whiteboarding, chat, and more.

  • Collaboratory

    A collaboratory is a community made up of individuals and organizations who agree to work together with the goal of solving problems or innovating more effectively by using the power of their collective resources, expertise and knowledge.

  • Commerce (structure) A2

    All structural elements that form the operational basis for the organisation to perform commercial processes such as trading and financial processes etc.\r\n These can include, for example:


    • Financial and constitutional arrangements;


    • Contracts, certificates or other documents relating to delivery or supply of products and/or services.


  • Commercial Marketing

    Commercial marketing, defined as the industry’s search of a positive answer from the side of consumers and public, concerning quality and volumes of the own products and services, with the primary, although not exclusive goal: the own profit

  • Common carrier

    A government-regulated private company that furnishes the public with telecommunications services (for example, phone companies).

  • Community

    See online community.

  • Competence

    The ability to perform in a post or role or perform a task to a required standard.

  • Competency management

    A system used to evaluate skills, knowledge, and performance within an organization; spot gaps; and introduce training, compensation, and recruiting programs based on current or future needs.

  • Complementary Grant Agreement

    Complementary grant agreement, means a grant agreement concluded with the Community in respect of work technically related to the project, including for use purposes, and recognised in writing by the beneficiaries to each grant agreement as being complementary.

  • Compliance certificates

    which require suppliers, buying agents, or contractors to certify in writing that they abide by the company s stated standards.

  • Compliance codes

    Directive statements giving guidance and prohibiting certain kinds of conduct.

  • Compliant (standards-compliant)

    E-learning that meets established standards of, and has received official approval from, an accrediting organization. See also conformant.

  • Compressed file

    A computer file that has been reduced in size by a compression software program. The user must decompress these files before they can be viewed or used.

  • Compressed video

    Video signals downsized to allow travel along a smaller carrier.

  • Conformant (standards-conformant)

    E-learning that meets the standards of an accrediting organization but that has not gone through the formal application process to be deemed compliant

  • Connect time

    The amount of time that a terminal or computer has been logged on to a computer or server for a particular session.

  • Consortium

    means all the beneficiaries and members participating in the project covered by this grant agreement.

  • Consortium agreement

    means an agreement concluded between beneficiaries in order to specify or supplement, between themselves, the provisions of this grant agreement.

  • Container

    A myPROMIS Container is an element at the top of, or within, a container tree, and which contains or is capable of containing further containers or objects.

  • Content

    Information captured digitally and imparted to learners.

  • Content Management

    Content management includes the process of tracking and managing a document end-to-end, from creation to copyediting to Web posting and, finally, to the archive.

    It can include collaborative authoring so that a group can work on a document in an efficient manner that avoids hazards such as the game of „who’s got the latest version?“ as well as management of the content development workflow.

  • Convergence

    A result of the digital era in which various types of digital information, such as text, audio, and video, and their delivery mechanisms -television, telecommunications, and consumer electronics- are combined together in new integrated forms. WebTV is an example of convergence between televisions and computer technology.

  • Cookie

    Information stored on a user s computer after he or she visits a Website. The cookie tracks data about that user but can be disabled in the browser.

  • Corporate credos

    Broad general statements of corporate commitments to constituencies, values and objectives.

  • Corporate university

    A learning organization with a governance system that aligns all learning with the corporate or agency mission, strategy, and goals. The governance system typically includes a governing board consisting of the CEO and other senior executives and a chief learning officer (CLO) who has overall responsibility for managing the organization s investment in learning.

    CEOs of best-practice learning organizations leverage their corporate university to achieve performance goals, drive cultural transformation, reform and integrate training departments, and establish and sustain competitive advantage through learning.

  • Courseware

    Any type of instructional or educational course delivered via a software program or over the Internet.

  • CPU (central processing unit)

    The CPU – a highly complex silicon chip ranging from the size of a matchbook to the wallet-sized Intel Xeon – is your computer’s brain, taking requests from applications and then processing, or executing, actions, a.k.a. operations.

    The faster your processor, the more operations it can execute per second. The more operations you have per second, the faster things happen in your applications; thus, games play more smoothly, and spreadsheets calculate more quickly.

    Sometimes the term CPU is also used to describe the whole box that contains the chip (along with the motherboard, expansion cards, disk drives, power supply, and so on). Both uses are widespread, but only the first is really accurate.

  • CRM (customer relationship management)

    Methodologies, software, and Internet capabilities that help a company identify and categorize customers and manage relationships with them.

  • CSS (cascading style sheets)

    An HTML feature that enables Webpage developers and users to specify the way a Webpage appears when displayed in a browser, by applying a number of different style sheets to the page. Each style sheet controls a different design element or set of design elements.

  • Customer-focused e-learning

    Technology-based learning programs offered by a company and targeted at their current and prospective customers. The intent is to increase brand loyalty among existing customers and attract new business.

  • Cyberspace

    The nebulous „place“ where humans interact over computer networks; term coined by William Gibson in Neuromancer.

  • Database

    A collection of information stored oftentimes in a computerized format. Examples: library catalogs, search engines, financial data, etc.

  • De facto standard

    An e-learning specification that has not been officially established by an accrediting agency but that is accepted and used as a standard by a majority of practitioners.

  • Default

    A setting that the computer system uses automatically, unless it is changed by the user.

  • Deliverables

    Project deliverables means the reports, requests for payments and financial statements referred to in Article 4 of this grant agreement and Article 4 of this Annex as well as any element designated as such in Annex I to this grant agreement.

  • Delivery

    Any method of transferring content to learners, including instructor-led training, Web-based training, CD-ROM, books, and more.

  • deployPROMIS

    The project funded by the European Commission eTEN, to market PROMIS in 5 countries.

  • Desktop videoconferencing

    Videoconferencing on a personal computer.

  • Development
    1. Learning or other types of activities that prepare a person for additional job responsibilities and/or enable him to gain knowledge or skills.
    2. The creation of training materials or courses, as in content development or e-learning development.

  • Dial-up service

    A common method of connecting to the Internet. A user’s modem dials up to a service provider, through which an Internet connection is established.

  • Digital

    An electrical signal that varies in discrete steps in voltage, frequency, amplitude, locations, and so forth. Digital signals can be transmitted faster and more accurately than analog signals.

  • Digital Divide

    The gap that exists between those who can afford technology and those who cannot.

  • Disc/Disk

    See floppy disk or CD-ROM.

  • Discussion boards

    Forums on the Internet or an intranet where users can post messages for others to read.

  • Disk drive

    The part of a computer that reads and writes data onto either a floppy disk, a hard disk, or an optical disk (CD, CD-ROM, DVD, DVD-ROM, WORM, and so forth).

  • Dissemination

    Dissemination, means the disclosure of knowledge by any appropriate means other than the publication resulting from the formalities for protecting the knowledge, for the purposes of promoting technical progress.

  • Distance education

    Educational situation in which the instructor and students are separated by time, location, or both. Education or training courses are delivered to remote locations via synchronous or asynchronous means of instruction, including written correspondence, text, graphics, audio- and videotape, CD-ROM, online learning, audio- and videoconferencing, interactive TV, and FAX.

    Distance education does not preclude the use of the traditional classroom. The definition of distance education is broader than and entails the definition of e-learning.

  • Distance learning

    The desired outcome of distance education. The two terms are often used interchangeably.

  • DNS

    Abbreviation for Domain Name System. A distributed client-server database system which links domain names with their numerical IP adresses.

  • Do

    ‘Do’ forms the second stage of the PDCA natural improvement cycle. Implementation of the plan.

  • Documents (structure) A6

    Internally produced and externally supplied documents and data which relate to the operational management of the organisation – whether controlled and uncontrolled. Can include any document produced by a software application.

  • Domain name

    The name of a computer or server on the Internet in the form of a string of names or numbers, separated by periods.

  • Download

    (noun) A file that is transferred or copied to a user s computer from another connected individual computer, a computer network, a commercial online service, or the Internet.

    (verb) To transfer or copy a file to a user s computer from another connected individual computer, a computer network, a commercial online service, or the Internet.

  • DS (Digital Signal)

    The rate and format of a digital signal, for example, DS-1 or DS-3. Often used synonymously with T, as in T1 or T3, although the T technically refers to the type of equipment.

  • DSL (digital subscriber line)

    A broadband Internet access method that sends data over standard phone lines at speeds up to 7 Mbps. DSL is available to subscribers who live within a certain distance of the necessary router.

  • Duration of the project

    means the period of performance of the project as referred to in Article 2.1 of this grant agreement.

  • DVD (digital versatile disc)

    Optical disks that are the same size as CDs but are double-sided and have larger storage capacities.

  • DVI (digital video interactive)

    A format for recording digital video onto compact disk, allowing for compression and full-motion video.

  • Dynamics

    Dynamics requires a cine or movie camera to record it because it is time related. Dynamics includes elements (containers) A1 to A6.

  • E-commerce

    The conducting of business communication and transactions over networks and through computers. As most restrictively defined, electronic commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services, and the transfer of funds, through digital communications.

    However eCommerce also includes all inter-company and intra-company functions (such as marketing, finance, manufacturing, selling, and negotiation) that enable commerce and use electronic mail, EDI, file transfer, fax, video conferencing, workflow, or interaction with a remote computer.

  • E-learning (electronic learning)

    Term covering a wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, CD-ROM, and more.

  • E-mail

    Abbreviation for electronic mail. A letter or memo sent to a person or group electronically on the Internet.

  • E-mail address

    A user’s electronic mailbox name or address, needed for linking the sender of e-mail and the recipient.

  • E-training

    See TBT.

  • Echo cancellation

    The process of eliminating the acoustic echo in a videoconferencing room.

  • Element

    A myPROMIS element is a container and/or object. Elements can have a dual role where they are an object with attributes such as ‘furniture’ but are also a container for subordinate containers or objects such as chairs or a chair.

    The concept of an Element allows hierarchies of similar objects (families) to be assessed and controlled as a generic group while still permitting novel aspects of subordinate objects to be assessed individually.

  • Eligible costs

    the costs referred to in Articles 14 and 15 of this Annex, in compliance with the conditions set out in Articles 13.1 to 13.7 thereof.

  • Email list

    A form of one-to-many communication using email; a software program for automating mailing lists and discussion groups on a computer network.

  • End user

    The person for whom a particular technology is designed; the individual who uses the technology for its designated purpose. In e-learning, the end user is usually the student.

  • End-to-end solution

    A marketing term used by large e-learning suppliers; meant to imply that their products and services will handle all aspects of e-learning.

  • Enterprise-wide e-learning

    E-learning that is intended for all or most employees within a company. It is often part of a strategic change of direction with a very short timeline, but is also used to support a core process such as sales.

  • EPSS (electronic performance support system)
    1. A computer application that is linked directly to another application to train or guide workers through completing a task in the target application.
    2. More generally, a computer or other device that gives workers information or resources to help them accomplish a task or achieve performance requirements.


  • Ergonomics

    Design principles relating to the comfort, efficiency, and safety of users.

  • ERP (enterprise resource planning)

    A set of activities supported by application software that helps a company manage such core parts of its business as product planning, parts purchasing, inventory management, order tracking, and customer service. Can also include modules for finance and HR activities.

    The deployment of an ERP system can involve considerable business process analysis, employee retraining, and new work procedures.

  • Ethernet

    A type of local area network, originally developed at Xerox, in which computers communicate through radio frequency signals sent over coaxial cable.

  • Evaluation

    Any systematic method for gathering information about the impact and effectiveness of a learning offering. Results of the measurements can be used to improve the offering, determine whether the learning objectives have been achieved, and assess the value of the offering to the organization.

  • Events (dynamics) B3

    Events are transformation that have occurred or are planned to occur and are related to real time. Events may occupy a time line that includes now and stretches into the past and into the future.

  • Evidence Based

    When one says that a form of knowledge is evidence based it means, that is has gone through a rigorous peer review process to ensure that any outcomes or results that are attributed are valid.

  • Expenditure

    means total actual costs of the project including any eligible and noneligible cost, which is necessary for the project and actually spent by a beneficiary or a member during the duration of the project.

  • Exploitation (Use)

    Use (Exploitation), means the direct or indirect utilisation of knowledge in research activities or for developing, creating and marketing a product or process or for creating and providing a service.

  • Extensibility

    The ability to expand and adapt an e-learning application or infrastructure by adding features, components, or services to a core set of capabilities.

  • Extranet

    A local-area network (LAN) or wide-area network (WAN) using TCP/IP, HTML, SMTP, and other open Internet-based standards to transport information. An extranet is only available to people inside and certain people outside an organization, as determined by the organization.

  • F2F (face-to-face)

    Term used to describe the traditional classroom environment. Also see ILT.

  • Facilitative tools

    Electronic features used to deliver online courses. Examples include mailing lists, chat programs, streaming audio, streaming video, and Webpages

  • Facilitator

    The online course instructor who aids learning in the online, student-centered environment.

  • False-starter

    A person who registers for but does not complete an e-learning course.

  • FAQ

    Abbreviation for Frequently Asked Questions. A document (often a hypertext document) containing common questions and answers for a particular website or topic.

  • Fax (facsimile)

    (noun) The print-out of information transmitted via text and/or graphic images over standard telephone lines.
    (verb) To transmit information via text and/or graphic images over standard telephone lines.

  • Feedback

    Communication between the instructor or system and the learner resulting from an action or process.

  • Fiber-optic cable

    Glass fiber used for laser transmission of video, audio, and/or data. Fiber-optic cable has a much greater bandwidth capacity than conventional cable or copper wire.

  • File server

    A computer on a network with the primary task of storing files that can be shared by network users.

  • Financial Regulation

    Means the Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 1605/20021 of 25 June 2002 on the Financial Regulation applicable to the General Budget of the European Communities and the Commission Regulation (CE, Euratom) No.2342/20022 of 23 December 2002 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 1605/2002 on the Financial Regulation applicable to the General Budget of the European Communities.

  • Finger

    Internet service that provides information about the users on a particular computer.

  • Firewall

    A technology that gives users access to the Internet while retaining internal network security.

  • FireWire

    Apple Computer s trademarked name for its high-speed serial bus supporting the IEEE 1394 data transfer standard. FireWire enables the connection of up to 63 devices and transfers data at a speed of up to 400 mbps.

  • Flash

    Software by Macromedia that enables designers to use simple vector graphics to create computer animations, which can be viewed by any browser with the correct plug-in.

  • Floppy disk (floppy diskette)

    A data storage medium used with a personal computer. Current floppy disks can store up to 1.44 MB of data and are usually 3 1/2 inches in size. Older floppy disks were 5 and ¼ inches. Also spelled as floppy disc.

  • Footprint
    1. The regions to which a communications satellite can transmit.
    2. The floor or desk surface space occupied by a piece of computer equipment.

  • Force majeure

    Shall mean any unforeseeable and exceptional situation or event beyond the control of the Community or the participants which prevents either of them from fulfilling any of their obligations under this grant agreement, was not attributable to error or negligence on their part, and proves insurmountable in spite of due diligence.

  • Freeware

    Software that is available free of charge for personal use.

  • Frequency

    The space between waves in a signal; the amount of time between waves passing a stationary point.

  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

    An Internet tool/software utility which allows you to transfer files between two computers that are connected to the Internet. Anonymous FTP allows you to connect to remote computers and to transfer publicly available computer files or programs.

  • Full-motion video

    A signal that allows the transmission of the complete action taking place at the origination site.

  • Fully interactive video (two-way interactive video)

    Two sites interacting with audio and video as if they were colocated.

  • Gateway

    A computer system that connects two incompatible services such as a commercial online service and the Internet.

  • GB (gigabyte)

    Just over one billion bytes. 1,000 megabytes.

  • GDI (graphics device interface)

    GDI Windows is a complicated operating system that’s divided into several distinct areas. The graphics display interface, or GDI, is the part that draws all the graphical objects – including common elements such as scroll bars and lines – to the screen.

    GDI functions are handled by a program called gdi.exe that loads automatically when you start Windows.

  • GIF

    Graphical Interchange Format is a commonly used graphics file format for image files on the Internet.

  • Globalization
    • The tailoring of an offering to include clear, grammatically correct text that eliminates slang, gender references, and cultural or generational idioms.
    • The process of deploying a single system worldwide that meets a variety of needs.
    • Integrating several working systems into one.

  • GPS (Global Positioning System)

    The Global Positioning System is a satellite navigation system used to determine terrestrial position, velocity, and time.

    Once exclusively used by the U.S. military, the GPS is now available to the worldwide general public. The GPS system relays satellite signals that can be processed by a GPS receiver.

  • Grant agreement completion date

    means the date referred to in Article 2.2, subparagraph 2, of this grant agreement.

  • Granularity

    The degree of detail something can be broken down into, or the number of discrete components making up any type of system. In e-learning, granularity is defined by the number of content chunks.

  • Grok

    To reach total understanding of a subject. From Robert Heinlein s Stranger in a Strange Land.

  • GUI (graphical user interface)

    A computer interface using icons or pictures. For example, Windows.

  • Hard disk

    A computer s main data storage component, usually housed within the CPU. Hard disks generally hold more data and can be read faster than floppy disks.

  • Hard drive

    A disk drive that reads a computer s hard disk.

  • Hard skills

    Technical skills. See also soft skills.

  • HDTV (high-definition TV)

    A television signal that has over five times the resolution of standard television and requires extraordinary bandwidth.

  • Health and Safety Advisors or Safety Consultant
    1. physicians – health, chronic illnesses
    2. safety engineers and technicians – health and safety in the workplace the provision of advice relating to hazards from dangerous substances, equipment for personal protection, and other elements of a safe workplace. They need a special training.
    3. chemical and process engineers – focus on plant safety to ensure safe production processes, fire and explosion prevention. Some of these engineers are registered, as required by law.
    4. environmental engineers – to ensure environmental safety such as the prevention of air and water pollution.

    Authorities are also a critical part of the health and safety context because of the role they play in, flow and exchange of information.

  • Home page

    The main page of hypertext-based information for n individual or organization on the World Wide Web (WWW).

  • Host

    (noun) A computer connected to a network.
    (verb) To store and manage another company s technology and/or content on your own servers.

  • HRD (human resource development)
    1. A term coined by Leonard Nadler to describe the organized learning experiences, such as training, education, and development, offered by employers within a specific timeframe to improve employee performance or personal growth.
    2. Another name for the field and profession sometimes called training or training and development.

  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

    the coding applied to text files that allows them to appear as formatted hypermedia documents on the World Wide Web.

  • HTTP

    Abbreviation for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. Often this is the initial sequence of letters in a web address.

  • Hub

    A network device that connects communication lines together.

  • Hypermedia

    Applications or documents that contain dynamic links to other media, such as audio, video, or graphics files.

  • Hypertext

    A system for retrieving information from servers on the Internet using World Wide Web client software. Hypertext consists of key words or phrases in a WWW page that are linked electronically to other Webpages.

  • IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

    An organization whose Learning Technology Standards Committee is working to develop technical standards, recommended practices, and guides for computer implementations of education and training systems.

  • ILS (integrated learning system)

    A complete software, hardware, and network system used for instruction. In addition to providing curriculum and lessons organized by level, an ILS usually includes a number of tools such as assessments, record keeping, report writing, and user information files that help to identify learning needs, monitor progress, and maintain student records.

  • ILT (instructor-led training)

    Usually refers to traditional classroom training, in which an instructor teaches a course to a room of learners. The term is used synonymously with on-site training and classroom training (c-learning).

  • IMS (Instructional Management System) Global Learning Consortium

    Coalition of government organizations dedicated to defining and distributing open architecture interoperability specifications for e-learning products. See the IMS Website.

  • Information architecture

    A description or design specification for how information should be treated and organized. In Web design, the term describes the the organization of online content into categories and the creation of an interface for displaying those categories.

  • Infrastructure

    The underlying mechanism or framework of a system. In e-learning, the infrastructure includes the means by which voice, video, and data can be transferred from one site to another and be processed.

  • Infrastructure (structure) A4

    Land, facilities, plant, machinery, equipment (including personal protective equipment), apparatus, vehicles, spare components, working animals.

  • Instant messenger (IM)

    Software that lists users selected „buddies“ (friends, family, co-workers, and so forth) who are online and enables users to send short text messages back and forth to them. Some instant messenger programs also include voice chat, file transfer, and other applications.

  • Instructional designer (ID)

    An individual who applies a systematic methodology based on instructional theory to create content for learning.

  • Integrated Management

    Integrated Management is the understanding and effective direction of every aspect of an organisation so that the needs and expectations of all stakeholders are equitably satisfied by the best use of all resources.

  • Integrated Management System

    A single set of coherent, structured management arrangements designed to establish the organisation’s policy and objectives, and to control and guide the totality of its processes in order to meet those objectives and equitably satisfy its stakeholders.

  • Integrated management system consultant

    Person who assists an organization in establishing, operating and improving an integrated management system.

  • Integration

    Combining hardware, software (and, in e-learning, content) components together to work as an interoperable system. The process of integration may also include front-end planning and strategy.

  • Intellectual property

    An idea, invention, formula, literary work, presentation, or other knowledge asset owned by an organization or individual. Intellectual property can be protected by patents, trademarks, service marks, and/or copyrights.

  • Interactive media

    Allows for a two-way interaction or exchange of information.

  • Internet

    An international network first used to connect education and research networks, begun by the US government. The Internet now provides communication and application services to an international base of businesses, consumers, educational institutions, governments, and research organizations.

  • Internet Explorer

    Browser software that enables users to view Webpages.

  • Internet-based training

    Training delivered primarily by TCP/IP network technologies such as email, newsgroups, proprietary applications, and so forth. Although the term is often used synonymously with Web-based training, Internet-based training is not necessarily delivered over the World Wide Web, and may not use the HTTP and HTML technologies that make Web-based training possible.

  • Interoperability

    The ability of hardware or software components to work together effectively.

  • Intranet

    A LAN or WAN that is owned by a company and is only accessible to people working internally. It is protected from outside intrusion by a combination of firewalls and other security measures.

  • IP

    Abbreviation for Internet Protocol. A protocol that ensures data goes where it is supposed to go on the Internet.

  • IP multicast

    Using the Internet Protocol, delivery of a learning event over a network from a single source to multiple participants.

  • IRC

    Abbreviation for Internet Relay Chat. An Internet service accessed through software programs that features real-time communication on channels devoted to specific topics.

  • Irregularity

    any infringement of a provision of Community law or any breach of a contractual obligation resulting from an act or omission by a beneficiary or a member which has, or would have, the effect of prejudicing the general budget of the European Communities or budgets managed by it through unjustified expenditure.

  • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

    A telecommunications standard enabling communications channels to carry voice, video, and data simultaneously.

  • ISO (International Organization for Standardization)

    An international federation of national standards bodies. See the ISO Website.

  • ISP (Internet service provider)

    A hosting company that provides end user access to such Internet services as email, the World Wide Web, FTP, newsgroups, and so forth.

  • IT training

    A combination of desktop training and information systems and technical training. Includes training in areas such as system infrastructure software, application software, and application development tools.

  • ITFS (Instructional Television Fixed Service)

    Microwave-based, high-frequency television used in educational program delivery.

  • Java

    A high level programming language used to create web applications, run scripts or mini-programs embedded in web pages or applications, or to create an interface for a web site residing database and many other purposes. Created by Sun Microsystems and a chief rival of XML.

  • Java applet

    A small Java program launched through a browser.

  • JavaScript

    A proprietary scripting language by Netscape that adds author-specified user events to static pages.

  • JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)

    An application program interface used to connect programs written in Java to the data in databases.

  • Job aid

    Any simple tool that helps a worker do his or her job (for example, a flow chart to follow when answering a customer service call). Job aids generally provide quick reference information rather than in-depth training.

  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)

    This file format for color-rich images was developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee. JPEG compresses graphics of photographic color depth better than competing file formats like GIF, and it retains a high degree of color fidelity.

    This makes JPEG files smaller and therefore quicker to download. You can choose how much to compress a JPEG file, but since it is a lossy format, the smaller you compress the file, the more color information will be lost. JPEG files can be viewed by a variety of downloadable software on both the PC and Mac.

  • Just-in-time

    Characteristic of e-learning in which learners are able to access the information they need exactly when they need it.

  • kbps

    Your modem’s speed is measured in the number of bits it can transfer in a second. Modems rated in kilobits per second are now the standard.

  • kernel

    Modern operating systems are typically built in layers, with each layer adding new capabilities, such as disk access techniques or a graphical user interface. But the essential layer, the foundation on which the rest of the operating system rests, is typically called a kernel.

    In general, the kernel provides low-level services, such as memory management, basic hardware interaction, and security. Without the kernel, your system would stop.

  • kilobyte

    Although kilo is Greek for a thousand, a kilobyte actually contains 1,024 bytes (that is 2 to the 10th power). In other words, a thousand bytes is actually less than a kilobyte. Remember that the next time you download a file. Abbreviated as KB.

  • KMS (knowledge management system)

    See knowledge management.

  • Knowledge

    Knowledge, means the property of the contractor carrying out the work leading to that knowledge. It also means the results, including information, whether or not they can be protected, arising from the project governed by this contract, as well as copyrights or rights pertaining to such results following applications for, or the issue of patents, designs, plant varieties, supplementary protection certificates or similar forms of protection.

  • Knowledge – legal meaning

    Knowledge means the results, including information, arising from the Project as well as copyright or rights attaching to the results following application for, or the issue or registration of, patents, designs and models, additional certificates or other similar forms of protection

  • Knowledge asset

    ntellectual content possessed by an organization. Any piece of information that a worker at a company knows, from customer names to how to fix a piece of machinery, can be considered a knowledge asset.
    Assets can be codified in a variety of formats, such as PowerPoint slides, Word documents, audio and video files, and so forth.

  • Knowledge base

    A specialized database that stores knowledge assets.

  • Knowledge Management

    Knowledge management is the management of the organization towards the continuous renewal of the organizational knowledge base – this means e.g. creation of supportive organizational structures, facilitation of organizational members, putting IT-instruments with emphasis on teamwork and diffusion of knowledge (as e.g. groupware) into place. –

  • LAN

    Abbreviation for Local Area Network. Used to connect computers over a short distance such as computers within the same company or office.

  • Laser printer

    While considerably more complex and expensive than most other common printer types, laser printers are capable of producing extremely high-quality text and graphics (including color) at fantastic speeds. At their most basic, laser printers apply an electrostatic charge to a drum inside the printer cartridge.

    A laser or a light-emitting diode then discharges portions of the drum to form the characters or graphics. Charged toner attaches itself to these discharged sections. A charged piece of paper is passed over the drum, transferring the toner. The toner is heated and fused to the sheet.

  • LCMS (learning content management system)

    A software application (or set of applications) that manages the creation, storage, use, and reuse of learning content. LCMSs often store content in granular forms such as learning objects.

  • Learning

    A cognitive and/or physical process in which a person assimilates information and temporarily or permanently acquires or improves skills, knowledge, behaviors, and/or attitudes.

  • Learning environment

    The physical or virtual setting in which learning takes place.

  • Learning object

    A reusable, media-independent collection of information used as a modular building block for e-learning content. Learning objects are most effective when organized by a meta data classification system and stored in a data repository such as an LCMS.

  • Learning objective

    A statement establishing a measurable behavioral outcome, used as an advanced organizer to indicate how the learner s acquisition of skills and knowledge is being measured.

  • Learning platforms

    Internal or external sites often organized around tightly focused topics, which contain technologies (ranging from chat rooms to groupware) that enable users to submit and retrieve information.

  • Learning portal

    Any Website that offers learners or organizations consolidated access to learning and training resources from multiple sources. Operators of learning portals are also called content aggregators, distributors, or hosts.

  • Learning solution
    1. Any combination of technology and methodology that delivers learning.
    2. Software and/or hardware products that suppliers tout as answers to businesses training needs.


  • Learning space

    An imaginary geography in which the learning enterprise flourishes. Mapped by market analysts and mined by consultants, this territory is a recent annexation to the business landscape.

  • Legitimate interest

    Means any interest, in particular of a commercial nature, of a participant which may be invoked in the cases provided for in this Annex provided that he demonstrates that the damage to that interest is likely, given the circumstances, to cause a specific prejudice that is disproportionate, considering the objectives of the provision in respect of which it is invoked.

  • Link

    The result of HTML markup signifying to a browser that data within a document will automatically connect with either nested data or an outside source. Used in the design of hypertext.

  • Linux

    What do you do if you’re not happy with any of the current operating systems? You build your own, of course. That’s exactly what Linus Torvalds did. His freely distributed, Intel-processor-based alternative to Unix, Linux (pronounced lih-nucks), is currently used by hundreds of thousands – and possibly millions – of people around the world.

    While Linux began life primarily as a hobby for supergeeks, the operating system has made some inroads into corporate life, particularly as an inexpensive substitute for high-priced Unix Web servers.
    Linux is available from a number of vendors for several hardware platforms, including Intel x86, DEC Alpha, Sun Sparc, and Motorola PowerPC.


    Email list management software developed by L-Soft International. See also email list.

  • LMS (learning management system)

    Software that automates the administration of training. The LMS registers users, tracks courses in a catalog, records data from learners; and provides reports to management. An LMS is typically designed to handle courses by multiple publishers and providers. It usually does not include its own authoring capabilities; instead, it focuses on managing courses created by a variety of other sources.

  • Local Management Assistant (LMA)

    Local Management Assistants (LoMAs) are people that, after training, can assist the SMEs in applying myPROMIS® (e.g. with data entry) and support the work of the PROMIS Qualified Consultants. They are employed and paid by the SME generally on a part-time basis.

  • Localization

    The tailoring of an offering to meet the specific needs of a geographic area, product, or target audience.

  • Log in/Log on

    To establish a connection over a network or modem with a remote computer to retrieve or exchange information.

  • Log off

    To terminate a connection to a computer or network.

  • Login

    The process entering in information related to an account name and its password in order to access a time-sharing computer.

  • LRN

    Microsoft s Learning Resource Interchange, a format that gives content creators a standard way to identify, share, update, and create online content and courseware. LRN is the first commercial application of the IMS Content Packaging Specification.

  • LSP (learning service provider)

    A specialized ASP offering learning management and training delivery software on a hosted or rental basis.

  • Lurking

    Reading the postings in a discussion forum or on a listserv but not contributing to the discussion.

  • M-learning (mobile learning)

    Learning that takes place via such wireless devices as cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or laptop computers

  • M-work

    The main concept in M-work is anything, anytime, anywhere – i.e. the access to relevant information independent of time and space. This concept enables flexibility in the work process and is a driver for productivity improvements.

    M-work will change the user behaviour like Internet technology changed the working day for most of us. Specific user communities with special needs will lead to develop good M-work concepts.

  • Mailing list

    An e-mail system that includes multiple recipients as part of its address. See e-mail.

  • Management philosophy statements

    Formal enunciations of the company or CEO s way of doing business.

  • Management System

    A management system is the collection of policy, rules and guidance that control and guide processes to achieve the organisation’s objectives. The nature of a Management System is structural and acts on processes which are dynamic in nature.

    The Management System may be written down within formal controlled Documents (A6) or may be defined within other myPROMIS Elements e.g. software structure can define part of the Management System.

  • Marketing

    Marketing is „the process of planning and executing the pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods, ideas, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals.“

  • Markup

    Text or codes added to a document to convey information about it. Usually used to formulate a document s layout or create links to other documents or information servers. HTML is a common form of markup.

  • Material (structure) A5

    Product, materials, substances, energy, forming part of or produced by the business process. May be biological, radioactive etc. Note these may be desired or undesired (e.g. waste is also ‘material’).

  • Mbps (megabits per second)

    A measurement of data transmission speed in a communication system; the number of megabits transmitted or received each second.

  • Megabyte

    Although mega is Greek for a million, a megabyte actually contains 1,048,576 bytes (1,024 x 1,024 bytes). In other words, a million bytes is actually less than a megabyte. Remember that the next time you buy a hard disk or try to fit files onto a floppy disk. Abbreviated as MB.

  • Member

    Member, means a legal entity, an international organisation, or the JRC, other than a beneficiary, which has concluded a membership agreement signed with a beneficiary in agreement with the Community and in accordance with this grant agreement and having, by virtue of that membership agreement, the same rights and obligations as the beneficiary unless the former stipulates otherwise.

  • Membership agreement

    Means the agreement concluded between the participants for the specific needs of the project in accordance with the conditions of this grant agreement.

  • Mentoring

    A career development process in which less experienced workers are matched with more experienced colleagues for guidance. Mentoring can occur either through formal programs or informally as required and may be delivered in-person or by using various media.

  • Metadata

    Information about content that enables it to be stored in and retrieved from a database.

  • Metatag

    An HTML tag identifying the contents of a Website. Information commonly found in the metatag includes copyright info, key words for search engines, and formatting descriptions of the page.

  • Microwave

    Electromagnetic waves that travel in a straight line and are used to and from satellites and for short distances up to 30 miles.

  • Mirror site

    Because the Internet population has exploded in recent years, a lot of archive servers can’t cope with the load. One solution is to create an exact copy of a server – a process called mirroring.

    Mirror sites divert some of the traffic from the original site. It’s not unusual to find a dozen or more mirrors of busy ftp sites.

  • Modem

    A modem is an external box or internal circuitry that converts computer data into sound that can be transmitted over phone lines. First used to send telegrams, early modems alternated between two different tones.

    This is called modulation, and the process of modulating (and demodulating at the receiving end) gave the modem its name. These days modems transmit data with lots of different tones, signals, and complex mathematical processing, so modem is a bit of a misnomer.

  • Module

    A module is a defined section of PROMIS. Modules can contain sub-modules.

  • Mozilla

    The original name for Netscape’s Navigator browser through version 1.1. Netscape „hacker“ Jamie Zawinski claims credit for the name, while artist Dave Titus turned Mozilla into Netscape’s original mascot. Mo has since been replaced by Netscape’s familiar nautical imagery.

  • MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)
    1. A high-quality video file format that uses compression to keep file sizes relatively small.
    2. The subgroup of the International Organization for Standardization responsible for setting the standards for this format.

  • MUD (multi-user dimension or multi-user domain)

    A simulated virtual world in which users interact with each other, often by taking on character identities called avatars. Originally created for game-playing, MUDs are growing in popularity for online learning and virtual community-building.

  • Multicasting

    The transmission of information to more than one recipient. For example, sending an email message to a list of people. Teleconferencing and videoconferencing can also use multicasting.

  • Multimedia

    Encompasses interactive text, images, sound, and color. Multimedia can be anything from a simple PowerPoint slide slow to a complex interactive simulation.

  • myPROMIS

    myPROMIS®, the core of the PROMIS® service, is an intranet, as well as internet integrated management solution for compliance and good management. This management tool provides a structure and functionality to systematically:

    • Record and manage applicable legislation and associated actions required to be performed by the organisation;
    • Record and manage an organisation’s structural and dynamic data;
    • Maintain a risk informed integrated management system based on a plan, do, check, act cycle that promotes continual improvement;
    • Manage quality, health, safety and the environment through a single integrated approach;
    • Facilitate compliance to recognised management system standards.

  • MySQL

    A true multi-user, multi-threaded SQL (Structured Query Language) database server. SQL is the most popular database language in the world. MySQL is a client/server implementation that consists of a server daemon mysqld and many different client programs/libraries.

  • Narrowband
    1. In data transmission, a limited range of frequencies.
    2. More specifically, a network in which data transmission speeds range from 50 Bps to 64 Kbps. See also broadband.


  • Navigation
    1. Moving from Webpage to Webpage on the World Wide Web.
    2. Moving through the pages of an online site that may not be part of the WWW, including an intranet site or an online course.

  • Nesting

    Placing documents within other documents. Allows a user to access material in a nonlinear fashion, the primary requirement for developing hypertext.

  • Net

    Common nickname for the Internet.

  • Netiquette

    Online manners. The rules of conduct for online or Internet users.

  • Netscape Navigator

    Browser software that enables users to view Webpages.

  • Network

    A set of computers that all use the same protocol in order to exchange information among themselves.

  • Newbie or Newby

    A newcomer to the nets, who reveals his or her inexperience by lack of knowledge of net conventions, netiquette, vocabulary, and know-how.

  • Newsgroup

    An online discussion hosted on the Usenet network. Sometimes also called a forum.

  • nslookup

    A common Internet utility like ping and traceroute. Given an IP address or a DNS address, it will look up and show the corresponding DNS or IP address.

    There are nslookup utility programs available for every operating system, which you can use with a PPP or networked or shell account. The commonly used FTP program WS_FTP Pro includes a number of utilities including nslookup.

  • Object

    An Object is an element that is not capable of containing further elements within a container tree.A typical object would be document or a piece of infrastructure whose components would be material (A5).

  • Object-oriented

    A method of software-development that groups related functions and data into reusable chunks. Properly handled, object-oriented programming can reduce development time on new projects.

  • OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

    When your computer gets a fax or scans in text, all it sees are graphical bits on a virtual page. That text is not usable, searchable, or editable. If you pass the page through an OCR program, the software converts the shapes on it into a text document.

    However, few documents are perfectly recognized and the errors are frequent if the type is small or the scan unclear. But the conversion is often faster than typing text manually.

  • ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)

    An application program interface to access information from numerous types of databases, including Access, dbase, DB2, and so forth.

  • Online

    The state in which a computer is connected to another computer or server via a network. A computer communicating with another computer.

  • Online community

    A meeting place on the Internet for people who share common interests and needs. Online communities can be open to all or be by membership only and may or may not be moderated.

  • Online learning

    Learning delivered by Web-based or Internet-based technologies. See Web-based training and Internet-based training.

  • Open Source

    The basic idea behind open source is very simple. When programmers on the Internet can read, redistribute, and modify the source for a piece of software (or any other form of knowledge), it evolves. People improve it, people adapt it, and people fix bugs.

  • Optical fiber

    Optical fiber cables consist of thin filaments of glass (or other transparent materials), which can carry beams of light. A laser transmitter encodes frequency signals into pulses of light and sends them down the optical fiber to a receiver, which translates the light signals back into frequencies.

    Less susceptible to noise and interference than other kinds of cables, optical fibers can transmit data greater distances without amplification. But because the glass filaments are fragile, optical fiber must be run underground rather than overhead on telephone poles.

  • Origination site

    The location from which a teleconference originates.

  • OS (operating system)

    A computer by itself is essentially dumb bits of wire and silicon. An operating system knows how to talk to this hardware and can manage a computer’s functions, such as allocating memory, scheduling tasks, accessing disk drives, and supplying a user interface.

    Without an operating system, software developers would have to write programs that directly accessed hardware – essentially reinventing the wheel with every new program.

    With an operating system, such as Windows NT or Mac OS 8, developers can write to a common set of programming interfaces called APIs and let the operating system do the dirty work of talking to the hardware.

  • Packet

    A bundle of data transmitted over a network. Packets have no set size; they can range from one character to hundreds of characters.

  • Participant

    Means a beneficiary or a member.

  • Parties

    Means the Community and the beneficiary(ies).

  • Password

    Secret code of letters and numbers needed to gain access to a time-sharing computer or FTP system, or to protect Web pages.

  • PDA (personal digital assistant)

    Handheld computer device used to organize personal information such as contacts, schedules, and so forth. Data can usually be transferred to a desktop computer by cable or wireless transmission.

  • PDF (Portable Document Format)

    File format developed by Adobe Systems to enable users of any hardware or software platform to view documents exactly as they were created – with fonts, images, links, and layouts as they were originally designed.

  • Peer-to-peer network (P2P)

    A communications network that enables users to connect their computers and share files directly with other users, without having to go through a centralized server. Groove is an example of an application that runs on a peer-to-peer network.

  • People (structure) A3

    A communications network that enables users to connect their computers and share files directly with other users, without having to go through a centralized server. Groove is an example of an application that runs on a peer-to-peer network.

  • Perl

    Perl is a general-purpose programming language invented in 1987 by Larry Wall. With over one million users worldwide, it has become the language of choice for Web development, text processing, Internet services, mail filtering, graphical programming, systems administration, and every other task requiring portable and easily-developed solutions.

  • Personalization

    Tailoring Web content to an individual user. Can be accomplished by a user entering preferences or by a computer guessing about the user s preferences.

  • PHP

    PHP  (Hypertext Preprocessor) is an open source server side programming language extensively used for web scripts and to process data passed via the Common Gateway Interface from HTML forms etc.
    PHP can be written as scripts that reside on the server and may produce HTML output that downloads to the web browser. Alternatively, PHP can be embedded within HTML pages that are then saved with a .php file extension.

  • Ping

    Packet InterNet Groper is a program and UNIX command that helps testing and debugging network and/or Internet connections. An ‚Echo‘ command is sent to a specified computer and then waits for a response. The result is a report that displays the success or failure, usually a report back of a timed response in seconds, of the intended action.

  • Pixel (Picture Element)

    Tiny dots that make up a computer image. The more pixels a computer monitor can display, the better the image resolution and quality. On a color monitor, every pixel is composed of a red, a green, and a blue dot that are small enough to appear as a single entity.

  • Plan

    ‘Plan’ forms the first stage of the PDCA natural improvement cycle.
    Planning establishes the objectives to be achieved and the processes and related structural elements required to achieve them.

  • Plan, Do, Check, Act PDCA

    The PDCA is a natural cycle used by conscious animals to assess what must be done to perform something successfully before doing it, together with checking success and finally reviewing and taking action to continually improve when it it is done again.

  • Plug-and-play

    The ability of a personal computer s operating system to recognize and install with little to no intervention by the user new peripheral devices that are added to the computer.

  • Plug-in

    An accessory program that adds capabilities to the main program. Used on Webpages to display multimedia content.

  • PNG (Portable Network Graphics)

    The patent-free graphics compression format developed by Macromedia expected to replace GIF. PNG offers advanced graphics features such as 48-bit color.

  • Point-to-multipoint

    Transmission between multiple locations using a bridge.

  • Point-to-point

    Transmission between two locations.

  • POP (Post Office Protocol)

    The set of rules and standards that govern the retrieval of email messages from a mail server.

  • Portal

    A Website that acts as a doorway to the Internet or a portion of the Internet, targeted towards one particular subject. Also see learning portal.

  • Post

    To place a message in a public message forum. Also, to place an HTML page on the World Wide Web.

  • Power users

    Advanced, sophisticated users of technology (usually a computer application or an operating system) who know more than just the basics needed to operate it.

  • PPP

    A software package that enables a user to connect directly to the Internet over a telephone line.

  • Pre-Existing Know-How

    „Pre-existing know-how“ means information, other than knowledge, held by the participants prior to the conclusion of the grant agreement or the membership agreement or acquired in parallel with them and necessary for carrying out the project, as well as copyright or rights attaching to such information following applications for, or the issue or registration of, patents, designs and models, plant varieties, additional certificates or other similar forms of protection.

  • Pre-financing

    Any part of the Community financial contribution which is paid in order to provide advance funds to permit the work on the project to begin, as specified in Article 3.1, point a) of this Annex and any periodic instalments as specified in Article 3.1, point b) of this Annex.

  • Processes (dynamics) B1

    Processes transform inputs into outputs and are hosted by structure and its elements.Processes can have desired but also undesired outcomes such as harming people, harming the environment and displeasing customers and other stakeholders.

  • Profit

    Shall mean any surplus of actual receipts attributable to the project over the costs, whether duly established or confirmed in the case of other outside funding, or whether determined by applying the principles laid down to establish the total actual costs of the project.

  • Program

    See application.

  • Project

    Means all the work referred to in Annex I to this grant agreement.

  • Project commencement date

    Means the date referred to in Article 2.1 of this grant agreement.

  • Project deliverables

    Means the reports, requests for payments and financial statements referred to in Article 4 of this grant agreement and Article 4 of this Annex as well as any element designated as such in Annex I to this grant agreement.

  • PROMIS Qualified Consultant

    A qualified consultant (ISO and/or EMAS and/or OSHAS and others) or recognized*, experienced and competent technical expert, who provides advice, resources and training to Small and Medium Enterprises and other organisations in required aspects of:

    • Design and implementation of fully integrated management systems addressing: quality, health, safety and environmental good practice;
    • Regulatory and management standards compliance;
    • Risk management;
    • Performance monitoring;
    • Change and continual improvement;
    • Certification of integrated management systems.


    PROMIS® means the whole service offered to the customers containing the internet platform, the methodology, the content, including also eLearning, the services and integrated tools. PROMIS comprises two interlinked parts, the Knowledge base, which embraces the first four levels of the Pyramid, and myPROMIS® that is a web based, intranet, as well as software application for hosting an organisation’s integrated management system and its structural and dynamic data.

  • PROMIS@Service

    PROMIS@Service, means the company established in May 2008 in Luxembourg to commercialise the PROMIS® solution and services in Europe and beyond.

  • PROMISLingua®

    PROMISLingua® is the co-funded European project aiming at the translation, localisation and implementation of the existing PROMIS® online service (at the moment available in English, German and Italian) in additional six languages (Spanish, French, Portuguese, Greek, Romanian and Hungarian) in order to shorten the time-to-market of PROMIS® and deliver a cost-efficient and easy-to-use Internet based service for Safety, Health, Environment and Quality (SHEQ) management by SMEs and their consultants via multilingual translation and innovative support services. To support the market entry of PROMIS® in 6 additional countries, the PROMIS® technology system will be enhanced and customised to multiple languages with online automated translation systems, Machine Translation, structuring of content, information retrieval.

  • Protocol

    The rules make possible the exchange of messages between users on the Internet, or within any given network. A formal set of standards, rules, or formats for exchanging data that assures uniformity between computers and applications.

  • Provider

    An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned.

    Internet services typically provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, colocation.

  • Proxy servers

    A proxy server is a system that caches items from other servers to speed up access. On the Web, a proxy first attempts to find data locally, and if it’s not there, fetches it from the remote server where the data resides permanently.

  • Pull technology

    In reference to the Internet or other online services, the technology whereby people use software such as a Web browser to locate and „pull down“ information for themselves. See also push technology.

  • Purchase orders or letters of credit

    Making compliance with the company policy a contractual obligation for suppliers.

  • Push technology

    In reference to the Internet or other online services, the technology whereby information is sent directly to a user s computer. See also pull technology.

  • Pyramid (Knowledge Repository)

    Pyramid (Knowledge Repository), is the tool to structure, filter and share knowledge from a sector (e.g. Pharma) and/or theme (e.g. Industrial Safety) and/or domain (e.g. Maintenance), which may be prepared and organized by institutions, associations and experts in standard categories or entirely according to the expert’s own choice. Consultants can, for example, use the pyramid to structure their own expertise, as well as to provide links to particular selected content, which they consider interesting or important for their own clients

  • RAM (Random Access Memory)

    Temporary storage built into a computer system that functions as a „workspace“ for data and program instructions.

  • Real-time communication

    Communication in which information is received at (or nearly at) the instant it is sent. Real-time communication is a characteristic of synchronous learning.

  • Rebuild

    Rebuild the solution on PaaS, discard code for an existing application and re-architect the application.

    Although rebuilding requires losing the familiarity of existing code and frameworks, the advantage of rebuilding an application is access to innovative features in the provider’s platform. They improve developer productivity, such as tools that allow application templates and data models to be customized, metadata-driven engines, and communities that supply pre-built components.
    However, lock-in is the primary disadvantage so if the provider makes a pricing or technical change that the consumer cannot accept, breaches service level agreements (SLAs), or fails, the consumer is forced to switch, potentially abandoning some or all of its application assets.

  • Receipts

    Means financial transfers made available to a participant by a third party to be used to carry out the project, and any income generated by the project itself, if generated during the life of the project or up to the time when the final financial statement is submitted to the Commission, whichever is later.

  • Receive site

    A location that can receive transmissions from another site for distance learning.

  • Refactor

    Run applications on a cloud provider’s infrastructure.

    The primary advantage of refactoring is blending familiarity with innovation, as “backward-compatible” PaaS means developers can reuse languages, frameworks, and containers they have invested in, thus leveraging code the organization considers strategic. Disadvantages include missing capabilities, transitive risk, and framework lock-in. At this early stage in the PaaS market, some of the capabilities developers depend on with existing platforms can be missing from PaaS offerings.

  • Registry

    The Windows Registry stores system configuration details so that Windows looks and behaves just as you want it to. The Registry stores user profile information such as wallpaper, color schemes, and desktop arrangements in a file called user.dat. And it stores hardware- and software-specific details, such as device management and file extension associations, in a file called system.dat.

    In many ways, the Registry (Windows 95 and later) replaces functions of win.ini and system.ini from earlier versions of Windows, though these files persist because so many Windows applications refer to them. Registry details can be edited using a program called RegEdit (which ships with Windows 95 and later) and exported to text format as a file with the extension REG.

  • Rehost

    Redeploy applications to a different hardware environment and change the application’s infrastructure configuration.

    Rehosting an application without making changes to its architecture can provide a fast cloud migration solution. However, the primary advantage of IaaS – that teams can migrate systems quickly without modifying their architecture – can be its primary disadvantage as benefits from the cloud characteristics of the infrastructure, such as scalability, will be missed.

  • Replace

    Discard an existing application (or set of applications) and use commercial software delivered as a service.

    The replacing option avoids investment in mobilizing a development team when requirements for a business function change quickly. Disadvantages can include inconsistent data semantics, data access issues, and vendor lock-in.

  • Repurpose

    Resolution is a measure of graphics that’s used to describe what a printer can print, a scanner can scan, and a monitor can display. In printers and scanners, resolution is measured in dots per inch (dpi) – the number of pixels a device can fit in an inch of space.A monitor’s resolution refers to the number of pixels in the whole image, because the number of dots per inch varies depending on the screen’s dimensions.

    For example, a resolution of 1,280 by 1,024 means that 1,024 lines are drawn from the top to the bottom of the screen, and each of these lines is made up of 1,280 separate pixels – and in turn, each dot may have any number of combinations of red, green, and blue intensities.

    Common resolutions in the PC world include 640 by 480 (also called VGA resolution; appropriate for a 14-inch monitor), 800 by 600 (appropriate for a 15-inch monitor), 1,024 by 768 (appropriate for a 17-inch monitor), and 1,280 by 1,024.

  • Resolution

    The clarity of the image on the video display screen.

  • Reusable

    E-learning content that can be transferred to various infrastructures or delivery mechanisms, usually without changes.

  • Revise

    Modify or extend the existing code base to support legacy modernization requirements, then use rehost or refactor options to deploy to cloud.

    The revising option allows organizations to optimize the application to leverage the cloud characteristics of providers‘ infrastructure. The downside is that kicking off a (possibly major) development project will require upfront expenses to mobilize a development team. Depending on the scale of the revision, revise is the option likely to take the most time to deliver its capabilities.

  • RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

    A wireless information-transmission technology set to take the place of bar codes. A tag is placed on the object and then read by an antenna and transceiver.

    The object does not need to be in the same line of sight as the transceiver, as products with bar codes do, and the transceiver can function over greater distances than bar code readers

  • RFP (Request For Proposal)

    A document produced by a company seeking goods or services and distributed to prospective suppliers. Suppliers then provide proposals based on the criteria specified within the RFP.

  • RIO (Reusable Information Object)

    A collection of content, practice, and assessment items assembled around a single learning objective. RIOs are built from templates based on whether the goal is to communicate a concept, fact, process, principle, or procedure. (Pronounced „REE-O“)

  • RLO (Reusable Learning Object)

    A collection of RIOs, overview, summary, and assessments that supports a specific learning objective. (Pronounced „R-L-O“)

  • ROI (Return On Investment)

    Generally, a ratio of the benefit or profit received from a given investment to the cost of the investment itself. In e-learning, ROI is most often calculated by comparing the tangible results of training (for example, an increase in units produced or a decrease in error rate) to the cost of providing the training.

  • Role play

    (noun) A training technique in which learners act out characters in order to try out behaviors, practice interactions, communicate for a desired outcome, and/or solve a dynamic problem. Role plays can reinforce learning and help people apply new information, skills, and techniques.

    (verb) To participate in a role play.

  • Router

    This piece of hardware does what it says: it routes data from a local area network (LAN) to a phone line’s long distance line. Routers also act as traffic cops, allowing only authorized machines to transmit data into the local network so that private information can remain secure. In addition to supporting these dial-in and leased connections, routers also handle errors, keep network usage statistics, and handle security issues.

  • Rules and regulations (structure) A1

    Rules and regulations includes all relevant legislation and adopted or imposed standards that govern the operations and objectives of the organisation.

  • Safety Consultant
    1. Physicians – health, chronic illnesses safety engineers and technicians – health and safety in the workplace the provision of advice relating to hazards from dangerous substances, equipment for personal protection, and other elements of a safe workplace. They need a special training.
    2. Chemical and process engineers focus on plant safety to ensure safe production processes, fire and explosion prevention. Some of these engineers are registered, as required by law. environmental engineers to ensure environmental safety such as the prevention of air and water pollution.

    Authorities are also a critical part of the health and safety context because of the role they play in, flow and exchange of information.

  • Scalability

    The degree to which a computer application or component can be expanded in size, volume, or number of users served and continue to function properly.

  • Scanner

    A device that converts a printed page or image into an digital representation that can be viewed and manipulated on a computer.

  • Schema
    1. A relatively simple textual description or representation of the internal structure of a database, including table names, element names, and relationships between elements.
    2. One of several new entities that define the structure and content parameters for XML documents.


  • SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model)

    A set of specifications that, when applied to course content, produces small, reusable learning objects. A result of the Department of Defense s Advance Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative, SCORM-compliant courseware elements can be easily merged with other compliant elements to produce a highly modular repository of training materials.

  • Screen reader

    Computer software that speaks text on the screen. Often used by individuals who are visually impaired.

  • Screenshot

    A picture of a computer display that shows the display at a given point in time. Also called a screen capture. Annotated screenshots are often used in software manuals and training programs.

  • Script

    A program or set of instructions not carried out by the computer processor but by another program. Code is interpreted at run time rather than being stored in executable format.

  • Scripting language

    See Script.

  • Scroll

    To move text and images on a computer screen in a constant direction – down, up, right, or left.

  • Seamless technology

    Technology that is easy to use, intuitive in nature, and is not the focus of the learning experience. Also called transparent technology.

  • Search Engine

    A tool or program which allows keyword searching for relevant sites or information on the Internet. General and topic-specific search engines are prevalent today, for example, Education World, WebCrawler, Infoseek, Lycos, and Yahoo are examples of search engines.

  • Self-assessment

    The process by which the learner determines his or her personal level of knowledge and skills.

  • Self-paced learning

    An offering in which the learner determines the pace and timing of content delivery.

  • Self-sustaining Marketing

    Self-sustaining marketing, defined as marketing the results of research with all financial benefits constantly reinvested in further research, to benefit society.

  • Semantic Web

    A concept proposed by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee. States that the Web can be made more useful by using methods such as content tags to enable computers to understand what they are displaying and to communicate effectively with each other. That, says Berners-Lee, will increase users ability to find the information they see.

  • Serial bus

    A channel through which information flows, one bit at a time, between two or more devices in or connected to a computer. A bus typically has multiple points of access through which devices can attach to it.

  • Serial port

    A connection point for peripheral devices to be attached to a computer, through which data transmission occurs one bit at a time.

  • Server

    A computer with a special service function on a network, generally to receive and connect incoming information traffic.

  • Service Provider

    A company that provides dial-up or direct access to the Internet for a fee. Sometimes referred to as ISP (internet service provider).

  • Shareware

    Copyrighted software that is available for personal use for a small fee, and often downloadable from the Internet.

  • Simulations

    Highly interactive applications that allow the learner to model or role-play in a scenario. Simulations enable the learner to practice skills or behaviors in a risk-free environment.

  • Skill gap analysis

    Compares a person s skills to the skills required for the job to which they have been, or will be, assigned. A simple skill gap analysis consists of a list of skills required along with a rating of the employee s level for each skill. Ratings below a predetermined level identify a skill gap.

  • Skills inventory

    A list of skills or competencies that an individual posssess, usually created by self-evaluation.

  • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

    A means of allowing a user to connect to the Internet directly over a high-speed modem. Also see PPP. SLIP is older and used less frequently than PPP.

  • Slow scan converter

    A transmitter or receiver of still video over narrowband channels. In real time, camera subjects must remain still for highest resolution.

  • Small or medium sized enterprises (SME)

    Enterprises qualify as micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) if they fulfill the criteria in the table below. In addition to the staff headcount ceiling, an enterprise qualifies as an SME if it meets either the turnover ceiling or the balance sheet ceiling, but not necessarily both.

  • Soft skills

    Business skills such as communication and presentation, leadership and management, human resources, sales and marketing, professional development, project and time management, customer service, team building, administration, accounting and finance, purchasing, and personal development.

  • Software

    A set of instructions that tell a computer what to do; a program.

  • Source code

    Program instructions written by a software developer and later translated (usually by a compiler) into machine language that a computer can understand.

  • Spam

    (noun) Junk email that is sent, unsolicted and in bulk, to advertise products or services or publicize a message. The term may have originated from a Monty Python song.

    (verb) To send unsolicited bulk email to advertise products or services or publicize a message.

  • Special documents

    (typically referred to as „codes of conduct“) outlining company values, principles and guidelines in a variety of areas. These documents are a means for companies to clearly and publicly state the way in which they intend to do business to their suppliers, customers, consumers and shareholders.

  • Special documents

    (typically referred to as „codes of conduct“) outlining company values, principles and guidelines in a variety of areas. These documents are a means for companies to clearly and publicly state the way in which they intend to do business to their suppliers, customers, consumers and shareholders.

  • Specification

    A plan, instruction, or protocol for e-learning that is established or agreed upon. Specification is often used interchangeably with standard, but the two terms are not truly synonymous. Specifications become standards only after they have been approved by an accrediting agency.

  • SQL

    Language for accessing information in a database and updating entries.

  • Stakeholder

    A person with a vested interest in the successful completion of a project. Stakeholders in e-learning often include the developer, the facilitator, the learners, the learners managers, customers, and so forth.

  • Standard e-learning

    An e-learning specification established as a model by a governing authority such as IEEE or ISO to ensure quality, consistency, and interoperability.

  • Storyboard

    (noun) An outline of a multimedia project in which each page represents a screen to be designed and developed.

    (verb) To create a storyboard.

  • Streaming media (streaming audio or video)

    Audio or video files played as they are being downloaded over the Internet instead of users having to wait for the entire file to download first. Requires a media player program.

  • Structure

    Structure is everything that can be recorded with a still camera because it is not time related. It does not essentially change with time. Structure includes myPROMIS elements (containers) A1 to A6.

  • Studying

    The self-directed practice of reviewing instructional material (usually as a follow-up to instruction) to improve retention and understanding. Aims to increase or improve skills or knowledge in the long-term, although some people argue that studying only places information in the short-term memory and mainly serves the goal of improving performance on tests.

  • Style sheets

    In traditional print publishing and on the Web, style sheets specify how a document should appear, standardizing such elements as fonts, page layout and line spacing, repeated content, and so forth. Web style sheets help ensure consistency across Webpages, but HTML coding can also override the sheets in designated sections of the pages. Also see CSS.

  • Subcontract

    means an agreement to provide services, supplies or goods concluded between a participant and one or more subcontractors for the specific needs of the project.

  • Subject Matter Expert

    SHE-Q Subject Matter Expert:
    A qualified consultant (ISO and/or EMAS and/or OSHAS) or recognized* experienced and competent technical expert, who provides advice, resources and training to Small and Medium Enterprises and other companies in required aspects of : best practice techniques, regulatory conformance, performance assessment and management and continuous improvement in the fields of Occupational and Process Safety and Quality in production.

    *recognized = Practitioner whose industrial career is in leadership of his technical field within SHE-Q having demonstrated competence required by his employer and by regulatory authorities. Practitioner recognized by publication of technical work in the scientific and technical community.

  • Synchronous learning

    A real-time, instructor-led online learning event in which all participants are logged on at the same time and communicate directly with each other. In this virtual classroom setting, the instructor maintains control of the class, with the ability to „call on“ participants. In most platforms, students and teachers can use a whiteboard to see work in progress and share knowledge. Interaction may also occur via audio- or videoconferencing, Internet telephony, or two-way live broadcasts.

  • Synergy

    The dynamic energetic atmosphere created in an online class when participants interact and productively communicate with each other.

  • System requirements

    The technological conditions required to run a software application. Includes the operating system, programming language, database, hardware configuration, bandwidth, processing power, and so forth.

  • T-1 (DS-1)

    High-speed digital data channel that is a high-volume carrier of voice and/or data. Often used for compressed video teleconferencing. T-1 has 24 voice channels.

  • T-3 (DS-3)

    A digital channel that communicates at a significantly faster rate than T-1.

  • TBT (technology-based training)

    The delivery of content via Internet, LAN or WAN (intranet or extranet), satellite broadcast, audio- or videotape, interactive TV, or CD-ROM. TBT encompasses both CBT and WBT.

  • TCP

    Stands for Transmission Control Protocol. both the protocol and software that ensure that data sent over the Net arrive in the correct order.

  • TCP/IP

    Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A group of protocols that specify how computers communicate over the Internet. All computers on the Internet need TCP/IP software.

  • Teaching

    A process that aims to increase or improve knowledge, skills, attitudes, and/or behaviors in a person to accomplish a variety of goals. Teaching is often driven more toward the long-term personal growth of the learner and less toward business drivers such as job tasks that are often the focus of training.

    Some people characterize teaching as focused on theory and training as focused on practical application. See also Training and Learning.

  • Telecommunication

    The science of information transport using wire, radio, optical, or electromagnetic channels to transmit and receive signals for voice or data communications.

  • Telecommuting

    Working at home but connecting to one s office by way of a computer network.

  • Teleconferencing

    Two-way electronic communication between two or more groups in separate locations via audio, video, and/or computer systems.

  • Telnet

    An Internet command that allows your computer to directly connect and interact with remote computers, often through a text-based ‚terminal‘ environment. Often involves the need for passwords and access information.

  • Template

    A predefined set of tools or forms that establishes the structure and settings necessary to quickly create content. A template contains predefined data or structure that may be used in total or in part, customised as necessary, to achieve a purpose within PROMIS by the user.Templates may include tree structured elements, documents, management tools etc.

  • Thin client
    1. A network computer without hard- or diskette drives that accesses programs and data from a server instead of storing them locally.
    2. Software that performs the majority of its operations on a server rather than the local computer, thus requiring less memory and fewer plug-ins.


  • Third country

    means a country other than a Member State.

  • Thread

    A series of messages on a particular topic posted in a discussion forum.

  • Tool

    A tool is a defined functionality within PROMIS that supports or delivers the achievement of a task or tasks.A tool may be related to one or more Modules.

  • Training

    A process that aims to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes, and/or behaviors in a person to accomplish a specific job task or goal.
    Training is often focused on business needs and driven by time-critical business skills and knowledge, and its goal is often to improve performance. See also Teaching and Learning.

  • Training management system

    See LMS.

  • Transparent technology

    Technology that is easy to use, intuitive in nature, and not the focus of the learning experience. Also called seamless technology.

  • Tree

    A tree is a hierarchical array of myPROMIS elements.

  • Tutorial

    Step-by-step instructions presented through computer or Web-based technology, designed to teach a user how to complete a particular action.

  • Unicasting

    Communication between a sender and a single receiver over a network. For example, an email message sent from one person to another.

  • Unix

    A computer operating system developed by AT&T Bell Labs and used to develop the Internet. It is no longer the sole operating system used to run servers.

  • Uplink

    The communication link from a transmitting earth station to a satellite.

  • Upload

    Transferring a file or files from the user’s computer to a remote computer.

  • URI (uniform resource identifier

    Name and address of information – text, graphics, audio, video, and so forth – on the Internet. A URI usually identifies the application used to access the resource, the machine the resource is located on, and the file name of the resource.
    A Webpage address or URL is the most commonly used type of URI.

  • URL

    Short for Uniform Resource Locator. A string of characters used to uniquely identify a page of information on the WWW. This information is used by browser software to find other WWW, FTP, telnet, gopher, etc. sites on the Internet.

  • Usability

    The measure of how effectively, efficiently, and easily a person can navigate an interface, find information on it, and achieve his or her goals.

  • Use

    means the direct or indirect use of knowledge for exploitation purposes

  • Value-added services

    In the context of the e-learning industry, value-added services include custom training needs assessment and skill-gap analysis, curriculum design and development, pre-and posttraining mentoring and support, training effectiveness analysis, reporting and tracking tools, advisor services and implementation consulting, hosting and management of Internet- or intranet-based learning systems, integration of enterprise training delivery systems, and other services.

  • Vector graphics

    Computer-aided design (CAD) programs and drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator and CorelDraw produce graphics that don’t look blocky when you zoom in on them.

    They scale up easily because they store geometric information about shapes and lines called vectors. These images are unlike pictures from paint programs or scanners, which are called bitmaps.

  • Videoconferencing

    Using video and audio signals to link participants at different and remote locations.

  • Viewer

    A viewer assists your Web browser by handling files that the browser itself can’t. Viewers can be any type of application, since they may be called upon to handle any kind of file-even sound files. Because it seems weird to use a viewer to play a sound file, some people prefer to call them helpers.

  • Virtual

    Not concrete or physical. For instance, a completely virtual university does not have actual buildings but instead holds classes over the Internet.

  • Virtual community

    See online community.

  • Virus

    A destructive type of computer program that attempts to disrupt the normal operation of a computer, rewrite or delete information from storage devices, and in some cases, cause physical damage to the computer.

  • VoD (video on demand)

    See CoD.

  • VoIP (voice over IP)

    Voice transmitted digitally using the Internet Protocol. Avoids fees charged by telephone companies.

  • VPN (Virtual Private Network)

    A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a private network of computers that’s at least partially connected by public phone lines. A good example would be a private office LAN that allows users to log in remotely over the Internet (an open, public system).

    VPNs use encryption and secure protocols like PPTP to ensure that data transmissions are not intercepted by unauthorized parties.

  • VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)

    The World Wide Web isn’t a linear experience like leafing through and reading a book. The Web enables you to jump around from place to place. But in most cases, you jump from one page-based site to another. HTML is the specification for page-oriented Web navigation. VRML is a 3D navigation specification, hammered out by Silicon Graphics, Intervista Software, and other organizations and individuals.

    It enables the creation of 3D sites (not necessarily just chat rooms, though this is one example of its use). Many sites and FAQs are devoted to discussing and showing off the technology. The specification is also available online.

  • W3C

    World Wide Web Consortium, an organization developing interoperable specifications, software, and tools for the WWW.

  • WAN

    Stands for Wide Area Network. A network of computers that covers a large geographical distance.

  • WAP (wireless application protocol)

    Specification that allows Internet content to be read by wireless devices.

  • WBT (Web-based training)

    Delivery of educational content via a Web browser over the public Internet, a private intranet, or an extranet. Web-based training often provides links to other learning resources such as references, email, bulletin boards, and discussion groups.

    WBT also may include a facilitator who can provide course guidelines, manage discussion boards, deliver lectures, and so forth. When used with a facilitator, WBT offers some advantages of instructor-led training while also retaining the advantages of computer-based training.

  • Web Application

    An application in which all or part of it is downloaded from the Web each time it is run. The term typically refers to the use of Web browsers and Java applets. Web pages increasingly resemble the interactive behavior of local applications.

    Retrieving a Web page may cause the execution of code in the Web server as well as code in the HTML page brought into the user’s machine. Clicking an icon on a Web page may cause a Java applet to be downloaded and executed in the user’s machine.

  • Web conference

    (noun) A meeting of participants from disparate geographic locations that is held in a virtual environment on the World Wide Web, with communication taking place via text, audio, video, or a combination of those methods.
    (verb) To participate in a Web conference.

  • Web Page

    A Web page is a document written in HTML and meant to be viewed in a Web browser on the Internet or World Wide Web such as Netscape, Internet Explorer, or Opera.

  • Web-based learning

    See Web-based training.

  • Webcast

    (Web + broadcast) (noun) A broadcast of video signals that is digitized and streamed on the World Wide Web, and which may also be made available for download.
    (verb) To digitize and stream a broadcast on the World Wide Web.

  • Webinar

    (Web + seminar) A small synchronous online learning event in which a presenter and audience members communicate via text chat or audio about concepts often illustrated via online slides and/or an electronic whiteboard. Webinars are often archived as well for asynchronous, on-demand access.

  • Website

    A set of files stored on the World Wide Web and viewed with a browser such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. A Website may consist of one or more Webpages.

  • Whois

    An Internet database that provides information on a person or an organization.

  • Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity)
    1. Term developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance denoting products that can connect to each other without wires, acting as either wireless clients or base stations.
      Products bearing a “Wi-fi certified” label should always be interoperable; some non-logoed products will interoperate as well.
    2. Any network adhering to the IEEE 802.11 standard, including 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and so forth.
  • Wizard

    A mini-application that prompts a user through the steps of a particular computer-based action. The user provides necessary information as he or she proceeds through the wizard s screens, while the wizard completes the actual steps behind the scenes.

  • WML (Wireless Markup Language)

    XML-based language that allows a reduced version of Webpages text to be displayed on cellular phones and personal digital assistants.

  • WWW

    Stands for World Wide Web. A very popular Internet service that organizes information using a hypertext and hypermedia system of linking documents, FTP sites, gopher sites, WAIS, and telnet.


    XHTML eXtensible HyperText Markup Language. HTML re-written as an application of the XML language. See the W3C Working Draft: Building XHTML Modules

  • XML (Extensible Markup Language)

    XML is the Extensible Markup Language, a system for defining specialized markup languages that are used to transmit formatted data. XML is conceptually related to HTML, but XML is not itself a markup language. Rather it’s a metalanguage, a language used to create other specialized languages.

  • XSL (eXtensible Stylesheet Language or eXtensible Style Language)

    A Webpage design language that creates style sheets for XML pages, which separate style from content so that developers can specify how and where information is displayed on the page.

  • ZIP

    An open standard for compression and decompression used widely for PC download archives, ZIP was developed by Phil Katz for his DOS-based program PKZip, and it is is now widely used on Windows-based programs such as WinZip and Drag and Zip. The file extension given to ZIP files is .zip.

  • Zip disk

    Portable storage disk that can hold 100 or 250 MB of information, manufactured by the Iomega corporation. Used in a Zip drive, Zip disks can archive or back up large amounts of data.

  • Zip drive

    An external data storage device that reads Zip disks.

  • Zip file
    1. A file that has been compressed, often with the .ZIP format originated by PKWARE.
    2. A file on a Zip disk, not necessarily compressed.
    3. A compressed file with the .EXE extension that is self-extracting (can be unzipped simply by opening it).